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DescriptionWe worked together on my research which will be attached in the attachments. I would like you to make me a PowerPoint presentation


We worked together on my research which will be attached in the attachments.

I would like you to make me a PowerPoint presentation  containing the research details like the introduction, the objectives, references, and the prisma and other details.

Master of Healthcare Administration
HCM 600 Research Project
The Challenges and Opportunities of Implementing Artificial Intelligence in Prehospital
Emergency Medical Services: A Systematic Review Study
Prepared by: Saud Ali Saad Alqahtani
Supervised by: Dr. Mohammed Almohaithef
Date: 2024/03/04
Chapter One
Integrating AI in frontline emergency medical services (EMS) is an innovative
advancement that is, at the same time, a cornerstone of the healthcare industry’s latest evolution.
A pivotal integration, with prospective breakthroughs never seen before in emergency medical
treatment, will be heralded as it immerses the world into a new dimension of relief. The
application of AI innovations in the very EMS structure where the most important thing happens
promises to introduce new levels of diagnostic precision, therapeutic interventions, and patient
outcomes (Fernandes et al., 2020). Such a revolutionary change allows for viewing the tech area
as a driving power behind the future evolution of emergency medical services, holding it up as
the benchmark that all should follow. The welding of AI and prehospital EMS is conversely
shape-shifting the speed and accuracy of decision-making in critical situations while giving birth
to a banner of innovative concepts set to further optimize multiple spheres of emergency care
(Piliuk & Tomforde, 2023). This means that the AI-driven EMS is not only a breakthrough in
using sophisticated technology to provide improved services but also highlights a spirit of
innovation, dedication, and determination to revolutionize everything in healthcare and whose
primary goal is to optimize results and productivity in urgent medical situations.
1.1 Background of the Study
The emergence of AI amidst the ever-changing landscape of healthcare has signified a
revolution that has the potential to significantly transform the very basics of diagnosis and
treatment in addition to overall patient care (Kirubarajan et al., 2020). This research is intimately
interwoven with the fabric of recognizing an inconvenient fact- the integration of AI into the
complex network of prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) is a gaping hole not
sufficiently explored, which seems to undermine its immense capability to exponentially
augment the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery of emergency medical care. The figures talk
a lot, as these show that only a part, about 20%, of prehospital EMS systems that had integrated
AI into their services is a stark illustration of the gap this research seeks to close (Cimino &
Braun, 2023). Based on this thorough understanding of the paramount role of the prehospital
phase in coordinating seamless and impactful medical processes, our research orientations arises
as a strategic bridge, carefully crafted to fill up the current gap on the part of AI technologies and
lead to the enhancement of a broad spectrum of emergency medical protocols. A dissection of
the statistical context articulates that places with higher AI uptake in prehospital EMS benefit
from a significant reduction of 15% in response times, validating the practicality of AI
amalgamation into critical care delivery (Tang et al., 2021). In addition, the study coincides with
the global trend that depicts cubic growth in the employment of AI across different healthcare
sectors, which has drawn attention and highlighted the need to explore EMS, prehospital area, as
a new direction where AI could be used even more and contribute to the change that leads to
more effective, data-driven, and patient-oriented emergency medical services.
1.2 Problem Statement
The healthcare industry is experiencing a significant increase in the applications of AI,
yet the specific application of AI focused on prehospital EMS needs to be better understood.
There needs to be more attention to the critical step, which is the implementation of AI during
healthcare temporarily until the potential of AI can be fully accessed, which restricts AI to
improve patient outcomes during emergencies (Clark & Severn, 2023). The research was
prepared in a very detailed way to bridge the gap and provide the use of the systematic literature
review as the instrument of the comprehensive analysis of the intricacies, challenges, and
opportunities of AI integration into prehospital emergency medical services.
1.3 Research Aim
The research tried to systematically review existing literature with an eagerness to take a
multifaceted view on AI deployment in prehospital EMS, examining the challenges and the
opportunities. The main goal of the session was to educate the audience on the profound
implications and advances in the medical application of AI that will affect the delivery of
healthcare services.
1.4 Research Objectives
1. To comprehensively analyze and combine a vast body of knowledge of the literature,
especially for AI in prehospital emergency medical services.
2. To do a rigorous investigation of the patterns, advantages, and disadvantages widely used in
AI applications within the prehospital emergency medical system.
3. To get to the bottom of the new problems and opportunities that AI may have brought to the
prehospital EMS.
4. To provide a comprehensive literature review covering the main challenges of AI in
prehospital emergency medical services, thus aiding a comprehensive literature synthesis and
detailed evaluation.
1.5 Research Questions
1. What historical trends underpin the application of AI in prehospital emergency medical
2. In prehospital EMS, what nuances characterize the benefits and drawbacks of AI applications?
3. What hurdles do AI technologies confront when assimilated into prehospital emergency
medical care procedures?
4. How can AI aid be optimally harnessed within prehospital EMS to induce improvements in
patient conditions?
5. To what extent are AI-based solutions tailored to the specific characteristics inherent in
prehospital emergency settings within emergency medicine?
6. What ethical considerations necessitate deliberation when appraising AI applications within
prehospital emergency medical services?
1.6 Hypothesis
The successful integration of artificial intelligence in prehospital emergency medical
services will enhance response times and patient outcomes, but implementation will face
significant hurdles.
Chapter Two
Literature Review
The world of prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) is at the beginning of a
transformational revolution prompted by the infusion of artificial intelligence (AI), as a
multitude of study papers have shown the complicated uses of this technology and the outcomes
that may happen. Aqel et al. (2023), in their detailed and thoughtful review, delve into the nittygritty of how Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine learning applications are being used in the
prediction and management of sudden cardiac arrest, highlighting the evolving paradigm where
AI, not only improves prognosis abilities but also enhances interventions in critical cardiac
emergencies. This substantial investigation conveys the transformation of AI that undoubtedly
impacts the way prehospital EMS is oriented generally to attain the objectives of the current
study that systematically cover all the opportunities and challenges in the field of AI deployment
in this specialized healthcare sector.
Napi et al. (2019) make a sound scholarly contribution by conducting a systematic review
while focusing on medical emergency triage and patient prioritization amidst a telemedicine
setting’s mutability. This seminal study explores the multifaceted challenges of remote
prehospital emergency medical care, presenting a range of perspectives that clearly show the
forward-looking technological trends favoring the evolution of EMS. The weaving together of
their findings-oriented approach will strengthen the broader literature review, enabling a detailed
analysis of the complex interplay between AI and telemedicine in emergency patient care in an
ever-changing context. Through the lens of the multifaceted intersection between AI and
prehospital EMS services presented by Napi et al., more than just an insightful opinion is
brought; it is an overall view that gives depth and substance to the overall story.
Widening the knowledge perimeter, Ellahham et al. (2020) go deeper into the intricate
area of healthcare safety and aim to deliberate AI’s role in this field. With advancing possibilities
and potential issues, this clinical investigation unveils the more wide-ranging ramifications of AI
utilization during prehospital EMS, where safety and effectiveness are the two critical
instrumental components. No doubt, the intersection of AI and Healthcare safety, described by
Ellaham et al., is a significant part of the literature review in which not only the positive sides of
it will be addressed but also the challenges that deserve to be considered. At the same time, AI
technologies are integrated into the complex pattern of prehospital emergency medical services.
The intriguing study they conducted forms the crucial starting point, which acts as a wellresearched basis for describing the need for safe and efficient AI-oriented prehospital emergency
care; this largely contributes to an extensive analysis of the discourse in the evolving area.
With a qualitative investigation, Niyonsaba et al. (2023) move through the tricky forest of
incorporating mobile health (mHealth) platforms in prehospital emergency care to increase
system efficiency and quality in Rwanda. This qualitative study goes beyond the mere utilization
of technology in resource-poor areas. Instead, it introduces a multifaceted approach that takes
into account cultural sensitivity. Through a balanced portrayal of different scenarios where AI is
implemented in healthcare delivery with scant or insufficient resources through a dedicated
chapter, the authors evoke a situation in which many socio-cultural factors manifest tremendous
direct influence on the streamlining of AI in the diverse prehospital EMS (emergency medical
services) environments. The current study introduces another layer, crucial for the literature
review to talk about the insights gleaned from this study. This goes beyond technology, which
provides a holistic understanding, opening up the realm that exceeds the technological realm.
Hence, the study incorporates the complexity and depth of the multifaceted landscape of AI
integration into prehospital emergency medical services.
The predictive approach was the critical shift by Grekousis and Liu (2019), who paved
the way for the use of AI applied to ambulance demand prediction, thereby adding to the
emergency medical services field. The work gives spot predictions about the areas that are next
at risk for a disaster incident, which goes alongside the objectives of the future study, striving for
the unearthing of historical trends and patterns in the AI applications for prehospital EMS.
Artificial intelligence applications have proved to be instrumental in predicting future challenges
in that the intelligent machine insight not only gives a comprehensive picture of the forthcoming
challenges but also offers a broader advice basis for the decisions and models that can be put in
place to address them. Similarly, the predictive nature of their research collates with the general
direction of the article, and the subsequent inquiry becomes a province where AI’s anticipatory
tactics are employed to manage the inner workings of prehospital Emergency Medical Services,
which is a domain of the AI application in the realm of emergency healthcare that is currently on
the rise.
Chapter Three
3.1 Search Strategy and Selection Process
The research strategy for this systematic review was carefully tailored to capture all of
the relevant literature on AI in prehospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Utilizing a
number of databases, like PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and
Cochrane Library, a comprehensive search was executed using both keywords and Boolean
operators. Combinations of keywords (“Artificial Intelligence,” “Machine learning,” “Prehospital
Care,” “Emergency Medical Services,” “AI Challenges,” “AI Opportunities,” and “Technology in
Healthcare”) were used so that the articles would cover a wide range of the topic. Also, grey
literature sources such as OpenGrey, Google Scholar, and conference proceedings of pertinent
conferences were searched for to get hold of the never-peer-reviewed but important studies and
The harvested search results were then submitted to a multi-phase selection process.
Firstly, duplicates were removed, and then titles and abstracts were screened preliminarily in
order to exclude the studies that presumably did not match the research criteria. The rest of the
studies went through a full-text review, in which two researchers separately did the review to
achieve a complete and unbiased selection (Grekousis & Liu, 2019). In particular, this two-fold
review was vital for the identification of research papers that were dedicated to AI in prehospital
EMS, such as empirical research, qualitative studies, comprehensive reviews, and others. During
clashes among reviewers, senior researchers’ third opinion was consulted to achieve a
3.2 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
The elicitation of inclusion and exclusion guidelines is a vital part of this systematic
review, ensuring that only relevant data is included in the final compilation. The criterion for
inclusion was accurately and carefully specified, considering both the quality of studies and their
contemporaries in the field of study (Piliuk & Tomforde, 2023). Only articles published within
the last ten years have met the selection criteria. It was during this time frame that the latest
advancements and innovations in AI based on prehospital emergency medical services (EMS)
were captured. This process was necessary considering the quickly evolving AI capabilities and
applications in healthcare.
Furthermore, the research areas should be devoted to the specific use of AI in prehospital
EMS. This very specific concentration of data was an essential factor in gathering data that was
related to the research questions to have even deeper insights into the unique issues and
opportunities in providing healthcare AI (Kirubarajan et al., 2020). Moreover, to grant the results
a firm foundation in rigorous research, the requirement for empirical data or theoretical analysis
was also formulated. This could help the findings to have substantial evidence or comprehensive
theoretical frameworks applicable to AI in prehospital EMS. The study should be published in
the English language too. This eligibility criterion is not to belittle the importance of research in
the other language but a practical consideration that the researchers should be able to perform the
analysis effectively and accurately, considering the language proficiencies available.
The exclusion criteria were set so that the entire process remains orderly and meaningful.
Studies were only included if they directly investigated the role and impact of AI on EMS at the
scene of an event. This omission served the purpose of keeping in tandem that the review should
be only related to the aims of the research and with the studies, which were not at all irrelevant.
In order to expand the comprehensiveness and accuracy of the review, articles published in
languages other than English were left out due to the language skills of the researchers, ensuring
that all included studies were thoroughly understood (Niyonsaba et al., 2023). However, studies
that did not include evidence or theoretical depth were not included in the literature search, as the
principal purpose of the research was to refer to works that gave a rich and thorough account of
the application of AI in prehospital emergency medical services. Furthermore, the works
published more than ten years ago, unless they are the great classics, were generally excluded.
Great works were included if they were capable of establishing this background information and
historical context necessary for understanding the history and present state of AI in prehospital
EMS. Thus, the present review was enriched with a historical perspective.
3.3 Data Collection Tools and Pilot Study
The creation and deployment of a dedicated data collection tool was a very important
phase of the research method, which was meant to ensure uniformity and precision in the data
extraction of many research works. This tool was meticulously constructed in order to examine
the details from many selected studies which would lay a foundation for a detailed analysis
(Clark & Severn, 2023). Critical data, including the author(s) and year of study, were recorded to
offer context and background to each study. The research design of each study was explicitly
mentioned to identify the methodological approaches used in the research field, as well as the
participants’ demographics were captured to look for the diversity and the representativeness of
the studies’ samples.
AI technology types in each study were thoroughly documented, providing unique
insights about the variety of AI applications and advancements in prehospital EMS (Napi et al.,
2019). Challenges were documented from the studies to understand the difficulties and pinpoint
the hurdles as well as the boundaries faced in injecting AI into prehospital EMS while at the
same time noting the opportunities to highlight the potential benefits and advancements that AI
could provide to this sector. Relevant information from both prehospital and EMS fields was
collected and interpreted based on the research questions.
To measure the tool’s effectiveness and fine-tune the data extraction algorithm, a pilot
study was executed on the articles’ subset. The pilot study will help determine whether the data
collection method is functional and comprehensive in gathering the required data. It facilitated
the research team in identifying the gaps or areas that needed to be progressively improved in the
tool so that the data extraction process is as result-oriented and prompt as possible (Piliuk &
Tomforde, 2023). With the pilot study results at hand, we made some changes that helped to
improve the data collection tool’s clarity, ease of use, and comprehensiveness. These
improvements consist of upgrading the data field for more detailed data recording, simplifying
the tool for easy access, and making sure that every required data point is included to allow for a
thorough investigation. This initial stage of the pilot phase was key in improving the data
collection process, thus ensuring that the data extraction to be executed on a large scale is done
as accurately and efficiently as possible.
3.4 Validity and Reliability
Achieving validity and reliability in the systematic review was taken seriously because
this is the essence of high-quality research methodology. The development of a detailed and
well-designed literature search plan was of great importance for reducing the chances of
publication bias, guaranteeing a broad and objective selection of literature (Tang et al., 2021).
The multifaceted strategy employed a wide array of academic databases and grey literature
sources, thus helping in the discovery of more varied studies and viewpoints. The aim was to
design a dataset that was a picture of the current AI in prehospital EMS, increasing the chance of
publication biases being avoided especially in overlooking significant contributions.
The scientific selection process was built to furnish further evidence for the authenticity
of the investigations. Thus, the act of multiple reviewers serves a dual purpose. Specifically, it
reduced the degree of personal bias and, therefore, ensured that the studies were not solely
chosen on the basis of one researcher’s viewpoint (Ellahham et al., 2020). Lastly, a broader
evaluation of the workability as well as the quality of the research could be made because the
team of reviewers that were assigned to study the documentation could have different viewpoints
and considerations. The coexistence study choosing framework was the heart of a balanced
dataset and data representation.
In addition to determining the quality and pertinence, each article went through a
procedure of detailed examination of its quality and relevance. This evaluation was based on the
criteria, which include methodological soundness, the size of the sample that is suitable, the data
analytical techniques that are reliable, and the relevance of findings to the research issues. The
review used the criteria consistently across all the studies to validate that its conclusions were
formed on evidence-based research with the strongest evidence.
Additionally, the dependability of the process of gathering data was greatly improved by
creating and utilizing a standardized data collection sheet. Although the pilot study, we did
extensive trials of the tool, including making changes to ensure that our data collection process is
fully precise and consistent. This method of data extraction is essential for all studies, and it
prevents a similar art of data collection, which increases the reliability of comparative analysis
and synthesis of findings.
3.5 Data Analysis
The data analysis phase of this systematic review, which is a systematic and integrated
one, is based on a methodological combination of a quantitative and qualitative approach for a
general comprehension of the issues. For the quantitative data, a number of statistical analysis
methods were used (Cimino & Braun, 2023). The strategies, such as meta-analysis where
pertinent, were crucial in combining the studies’ data to calculate the overall effects and find
common denominators and patterns in the literature. Meta-analysis was, among others, to
provide a statistics robust way of synthesizing quantitative findings from multiple studies. It also
gives insights that are not possible from individual studies separately.
Along with the qualitative analysis, thematic analysis was used to capture the data. This
method was critically important in highlighting and consolidating the critical ideas and patterns
emerging from the studies, particularly regarding AI use in EMS on the prehospital scene. First, I
used qualitative methods for thematic analysis to dive into the narratives and conversations of the
studies and uncovered some outstanding themes that quantitative analysis cannot demonstrate
alone. Through this mixed-methods approach, we were able to explore the holistic and diverse
spectrum of AI’s applications in prehospital emergency care. Through both the statistical and
thematic approaches, the review was able to offer a more refined and comprehensive picture of
the industry, caring not only about the measurable aspects but also the subjective feelings and
views on AI.
3.6 Ethical Considerations
As this study focuses on a systematic review of existing literature, ethical considerations
typically associated with primary research involving human subjects, such as informed consent
and data privacy, are not applicable. Since the study does not involve direct interaction with
individuals or the collection of new data, ethical review and approval are not required. The
primary emphasis will be on the transparency, integrity, and thoroughness of the literature
review process, ensuring that relevant studies are identified, synthesized, and analyzed in a
methodologically rigorous manner. While ethical considerations in the traditional sense may not
be applicable, we remain committed to upholding academic integrity, respecting intellectual
property rights, and accurately representing the findings of the systematic review.
3.7 Quality Assessment of Included Studies
The evaluation of this study was on the adapted variant of the Critical Appraisal Skills
Programme (CASP) checklist. This stringent rating was a great instrument in distinguishing the
credibility and the utility of studies which enabled me to have a systematic way of examining
and evaluating the study’s quality of methodology. While the CASP checklist was useful in
enabling scrutiny of each study’s design, execution, and outcomes at a thorough level, Research
objectives should be clear, study design should be correct, data collection must be rigorous,
instruments used should be reliable and valid, the data must be analyzed thoroughly, and the
conclusions should be relevant and convincing were the main criteria.
The review was conducted using a set of criteria so that the review could confidently
claim its quality and reliability. This was a way to avoid the possibilities of bias in the studies,
such as selection bias, reporting bias or researcher bias (Kirubarajan et al., 2020). Providing a
bias identification was crucial in understanding the limitations of the research and in giving a
more accurate interpretation of the results. The result of the quality assessment was useful for the
synthesis of results because it gave space for a critical and informed interpretation of the
literature, reflecting not only strengths but also gaps in the existing research.
3.8 Sample Size Determination
The decision for the sample size of this systematic review was on the basis of the concept
of saturation. Saturating in a systematic review means at the point of time when more articles
will not provide new data or contribute anything that will influence the findings of the review
(Fernandes et al., 2020). Through this method, the research process was based on a “searching”
principle and was exhaustive and comprehensive, taking into account all possible sides and
findings. The purpose was not to include a large number of studies arbitrarily but to select such
studies that would be enough to fully understand and demonstrate the size of AI applied to prehospital EMS.
This approach based on saturation allowed the review process to adapt and respond to the
content of the studies in an ongoing process. During the review, the research team went ahead to
assess the results that were emerging in order to figure out if they needed to do more research to
be able to gain a more thorough understanding. Selecting specific research among a large range
of studies by this method allowed the review to be both comprehensive and precise (Kirubarajan
et al., 2020). Furthermore, this helped to avoid redundancies in reviews, which did not provide
any new insights or significant contributions to the research questions in question. Through this
approach, the review intends to give a comprehensive and accurate picture of this field, covering
the width and significance of studies relating to AI in pre-hospital EMS.
Chapter Four
The systematic review involved 11 studies all of which have to do with authorization of
AI technology in prehospital emergency medical services. While these studies were purposed to
fulfill several functions, such as heart attack prediction EMS response prediction, and
telemedicine services, they also assured the safety of the patients. Besides this, these studies
showed that the number of participants who had already used AI for emergency medical services
in prehospital care had increased. As an example, Aqel et al. (2023) and Grekousis & Liu (2019)
in their studies also provide a basis for the belief that AI is the tool that is being used by
organizations such as paramedics to predict demand for ambulance services. These facts are
evidence that it is not only the emergency service where cognitive AI technology can be used.
Through a thorough analysis of the pros and cons of both options, a three-dimensional
picture of the final landscape can be manifested. On the other hand, the wide range of
applications of AI apps in prehospital EMS has now become one of its achievements with many
advantages, such as early prognoses, better performance in the intensive care unit, and the whole
system working more efficiently. To give an example, Fernandes et al. (2020) proposed that AIpowered clinical decision support systems are suitable for diagnosis, triage, and decision-making
processes and will play a crucial role in emergency departments. Treatment decisions will be
taken on time and in an efficient way. However, there are also some concerns including Data
privacy issues, Algorithmic bias, and Cultural sensitivity flaws that act as the main challenges of
AI in prehospital environments deployment. By these ideas, Ellahham et al. (2020) highlight that
resolving these issues is key to ensuring AI is fully used in the healthcare sector.
Besides the abovementioned, the review found that AI technology in the prehospital EMS
had challenges. Some of these challenges include issues in data integration, AI technology
compatibility, and ethical issues. Tang et al. (2021) emphasized the need for well-structured
data-sharing standards and interoperable AI platforms so that these challenges may be
surmounted, and the AI would be able to capture its potential in emergency medicine. At the
same time, outcomes are emphasized on the time of response which is swift, the distribution of
resources, and the advancement of patient care. Kirubarajan and colleagues mention AI as an aid
that would support the medical emergency workflow prioritization process based on severity and
urgency (Kirubarajan et al., 2020).
The research furthermore shows that there is an increasing realization that AI solutions
need to be tailored specifically for prehospital situations and that these solutions should conform
to the operational and logistical necessities of emergency medical services. In their study,
Niyonsaba et al. (2023) revealed that personification of AI in resource-deficient settings needs to
take into account cultural and social issues as well as pertinent circumstances. Napi et al. (2019)
also affirmed that AI construction can sense contextual clues; thus, it is important for the
prehospital setting and can support users.
In addition, the ethical concerns in the assimilation of AI into prehospital EMS have
ethical implications as well. Collaterals should encompass openness, accountability, and
impartiality as crucial elements of the AI processes to accomplish the organization’s primary
mission, which is safe patient care and trust in the healthcare system. Piliuk & Tomforde (2023)
noted the multiple ethical issues based on algorithmic biases and discrimination, which mainly
affect AI-driven decision-making, and thus advocated strongly regulated ethical guidelines in the
creation and deployment of AI-based healthcare systems.
In the evaluation of the hypothesis involving AI implementation at the prehospital EMS
level, it was discovered that the hypothesis had partial support in the investigation. In truth,
statistics show that AI can be useful in providing fast responses with improved outcomes.
Nevertheless, some hurdles have to be surmounted. Cimino & Braun (2023) identified the need
for full data governance systems and regulating bodies to face this challenge and preserve the
privacy of the people and the ethical use of AI in emergency medical services.
The review indicated the major changes caused by AI in the prehospital EMS.
Consequently, the study’s findings revealed the AI’s ability to revolutionize emergency
healthcare by optimizing intervention, prediction, and resource utilization. Nevertheless, these
problems of data confidentiality, algorithmic bias, and ethical questions are the major obstacles
to AI solutions in the prehospital area. Going forward, innovation, cooperation, and regulatory
supervision will be determined as the major moments toward the realization of the greatest
benefits that AI can deliver to enhance patient care and outcomes in emergency medical services.
Chapter Five
5.1 Understanding the Transformative Potential of AI in Prehospital EMS
While exploring AI in prehospital EMS, the literature review finds how AI can lead to a
medical breakthrough in emergency medical services. The AI development through the
integrated advanced algorithms and the application of machine learning techniques may enable
better predictions, diagnosis, and treatment in urgent cases, thus improving the patients’
outcomes over the long run. The research papers that have been thoroughly examined in the
review show a trend in the gathering acceptance of how AI can complement the ordinary
procedures of emergency medicine, which in turn indicates an evolution towards data-driven and
technology-enabled ways of doing things. Such results show that Artificial Intelligence can turn
the page on prehospital EMS by providing unimaginable possibilities for improving the way
patients are attended to and making the healthcare system, in general, more effective.
5.2 Balancing Benefits and Ethical Considerations
The impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in prehospital EMS, according to the study, is
apparent. Still, the ethical issues that come with the system have been noticed but rather
emphasized. As the analysis of selected studies reveals, the virtues of transparency,
accountability, and fairness are the pillars of the AI decision-making processes in healthcare
systems. These virtues are decisive factors in upholding patients’ safety and fostering trust in
healthcare systems. A delicate balance needs to be achieved while weighing the pros and cons of
AI use. In this regard, the patient’s welfare must come first. The respect for individual rights and
dignity becomes a similarly pivotal element of the process. Through the proper determination of
ethical problems, healthcare systems can be ensured for the responsible and ethical technologies
of AI in emergency medical services which will, in turn, secure not only patient wellness but also
the integrity of the profession.
5.3 Addressing Technical and Practical Challenges
Within the development of AI integration in prehospital EMS, technicians, and
practitioners should pay particular attention to the technical and practical challenges the system
has to overcome to fulfill its potential. In the field of selected studies, there is a general notion
that the key issues of data privacy, algorithm bias, and interoperability emerged as the most
difficult barriers to overcome (Tang et al., 2021). This issue, however, gives the potential hurdles
that need to be passed before AI systems can be deployed on a wide scale within emergency
medical services. The debate in the literature reveals the necessity of robust data-sharing
frameworks, which guarantee the security of the private data of patients during the combining of
systems of different stakeholders. On the other hand, issues related to algorithmic transparency
and fairness are brought into focus, hinting at the need for developing AI models that are
accountable and devoid of bias. Standardization protocols are urged to be created that will bring
about a common platform for the assessment and approval of AI technologies during prehospital
care. This could be done by systematically dealing with the technical and practical aspects which
invariably may be the major headache in the process of integration of AI in emergency care
5.4 Customizing AI Solutions for Prehospital Settings
A common notion that stroke in older people is a consequence of genetic factors is put
into question by several studies. The studies state that the need to adapt AI technologies to the
place of unique challenges characterizing prehospital settings is obvious. This, however, means
considering differences in patient populations, the nature of the environment, and limited
resources that make emergency medical care unique. Through the discourse viewed in the
literature, the focal point is ensuring AI solutions are flexible and customizable so they can be
conveniently used alongside existing workflow procedures and protocols. This further reveals the
importance of adaptability in the AI algorithms that would enable constant modifications to
address emergencies that are very dynamic and unpredictable. The first step towards this
direction is giving a high priority to AI solutions customization for the prehospital settings,
which will help healthcare systems identify the best ways of using AI to make interventions to
patients timely and accurate and to address the challenges experienced during the provision of
emergency medical services.
5.5 Leveraging AI for Predictive Analytics and Decision Support
There arises an area within the discursive of prehospital EMS in which AI illustrates
significant recognition: predictive analytics and decision support. The synthesized evidence from
the highlighted studies reveals that the AI algorithms are equipped to filter through immense
amounts of data which can then allow them to detect even the finest patterns, trends, and risk
factors relating to emergency medical conditions (Fernandes et al., 2020). Through the
exploitation of these data, doctors are better informed and can hence navigate their decisionmaking process at a higher level, improving patient care, resource allocation, and a lot of
treatment protocols. The artificial intelligence-based reports shed light on the way AI can
reinforce the processes of decision-making within prehospital EMS contexts so patients will get
better outcomes with lower mortality and morbidity rates.
In effect, AI’s place in decision support and predictive analytics is the shift in the
paradigm of emergency medical care, and we see the traditional approaches get replaced with
data-driven precision and efficiency (Kirubarajan et al., 2020). The unity of AI with healthcare
decision-making will be the upcoming time when providers will have advanced technology tools
to forecast, diagnose, and intervene in cases of emergencies with precise and efficient rates that
have never been achieved before (Grekousis & Liu, 2019). AI learns the correlation between
various clinical parameters and outcomes by analyzing consistently large data sets and provides
doctors with insights with which the doctors can take concrete steps toward judging a health
condition. In addition to this, AI-inspired decision support systems are on the edge of a
technological leap that could transform the triage processes, allowing healthcare providers to
locate high-risk patients at a fast pace and use resources masterfully to achieve the best
outcomes. Through the implementation of AI for predictive analysis and accurate decisionmaking, healthcare systems are now heading towards personalized, proactive, and data-driven
prehospital emergency medical care. This will become the new trend in prehospital Emergency
Medical Services (EMS).
5.6 Enhancing Resource Allocation and System Efficiency
Furthermore, AI builds as a strong factor to improve resource allocation and system
efficiency within prehospital EMS aspects. The study findings were combined, and AI-enabled
technologies can evolve the working processes and prioritize care delivery as efficiently as with
a scalpel. The reviewed studies reveal that AI-involved systems can change dispatching
algorithms, ambulance routing plans as well and hospital triage systems, the results of which are
a reduction in response time and good treatment provision for patients. Via maximum
effectiveness and proper use of available resources, the systems are positioned to address the
needs of patients in emergency cases while at the same time improving the whole system’s
The insertion of AI into resource allocations and the system efficiency work depicts a
new era where the greatest speed marks the prehospital EMS operations, response time, and
effectiveness. With AI-powered tools, healthcare systems can leave the boundaries of
personalized tasks and classical algorithms, thus entering a period of information-based decisionmaking and customization. The artificial intelligence capability emanating from the evidence
synthesis is a critical enabler that enhances the capabilities of the healthcare team to aid the
provision of timely and targeted healthcare services to those who are in need (Tang et al., 2021).
Moreover, the ability of AI to boost the system’s effectiveness is not limited to the operational
area alone but extends to various strategic planning and management resources processes. Using
predictive modeling and data-driven logic, healthcare administrators can further be able to detect
bottlenecks, assign resources judiciously, and enhance the system performance to get ready for
the future needs of emergency medical care. In a nutshell, the application of AI to resource
distribution and productivity betterment schemes will be the beginning of a new era of
prehospital EMS operations, where all patients will get efficient, effective, and compassionate
5.7 Fostering Collaboration and Innovation
For AI to be fruitfully utilized within the context of prehospital EMS, it is essential to
have an attitude of collaborative and innovative advocacy. The integrated review points to the
importance of teamwork, alternation of ideas, and knowledge exchange as the key pillars of
success in the expansion of state-of-the-art emergency services. Creating conditions that
facilitate cooperation and innovation provides healthcare systems with the opportunity to bring
together clinicians, scientists, technologists, and policymakers to utilize diverse knowledge and
creative skills (Cimino & Braun, 2023). By pooling their resources, stakeholders can come up
with, design, develop, and implement AI-inclusive solutions that can help overcome the multiple
challenges that are typical of prehospital EMS, thus sparking true progress toward transforming
emergency care delivery.
The culture of collaboration and innovation creates a lively ecosystem which is a good
ground where novel concepts are born and developed. They are put into practice, ultimately
leading to comprehensive solutions to the needs of prehospital EMS (Fernandes et al., 2020).
Through interdisciplinary networking and knowledge-sharing programs, healthcare systems are
enabled to morph these AI-anchored innovations to the challenges that patients and the system
are facing. Also, the culture of collaboration is headed for a ground where co-creation among the
end-users thrives if they are to be persons involved in designing AI technologies and help refine
them according to the clinical procedures and needs of the users. Consequently, this will build
congeniality and inspiration within the sphere of prehospital EMS and give credit to AI
deployment, being relevant to the altering situation in emergency medical services.
5.8 Promoting Equity and Accessibility
AI becomes a crucial ingredient in the creation of prehospital EMS, which, as a result,
becomes a moral priority and the cornerstone of healthcare justice. The integration of the
different impacts emphasizes the urgency of reducing the imbalances in the accessibility of AIbased technologies, mainly among underprivileged and ignored communities. Dealing with such
imbalances requires a staggered approach to ensure that the AI implementation process is
inclusive, equitable, and, most importantly, aware of the diverse needs of all patient groups
(Tang et al., 2021). Through promoting equity and accessibility of AI implementation in
healthcare systems, they can overcome availability and care access barriers so that in healthcare
systems where, all people, no matter their socioeconomic status, geographic location, or
demographic characteristics, are provided with equal opportunity to the timely and highest
quality emergency medical services will be formed.
The ethos of equity and accessibility in the AI applications are diverse which will engage
in the process of redressing systemic biases and the promotion of inclusivity in the health care
system. As for healthcare systems, it is of paramount importance not only to implement targeted
outreach programs but also community engagement initiatives to ensure that AI-driven
innovations meet exactly the needs of those they are supposed to benefit. Above this, health
equity growth requires a sophisticated knowledge of all the cross-cutting factors behind health
inequalities. The needed solutions should account for diversity in patient needs and challenges.
Through giving the top priority to equity and accessibility in the efforts of integrating AI,
emergency healthcare systems not only need to meet their ethical duties but also use all the
chances for growth due to AI as a catalyzer of improvements in the provision of medical care.
5.9 Limitations
The limitations of this systematic review are multi-level, mainly due to the difficulties of
synthesizing different studies with different methods and scopes. The major drawback is the
possible publication bias, which makes the studies that report positive or significant results more
likely to be published than those that do not. This could be the main reason for the distorted
representation of AI’s effectiveness in prehospital EMS. No matter how many attempts are made
to reduce this by thoroughly searching databases and including the grey literature, some relevant
studies might still need to be included, mainly those from lesser-known or regionally focused
journals (Grekousis & Liu, 2019). Moreover, the fast development of AI technology implies that
some of the results might be obsolete in a short period. Hence, the relevance of the long-term
results drawn from the current data will be lower. The fact that technology is constantly changing
can result in a gap between the time of study publication and its use in systematic reviews; thus,
the latest innovations or updated evidence may be overlooked.
The other limitation is the diversity and the specificity of the AI applications in the
prehospital EMS, which are entirely different in scope, design and context. The fluctuation
makes it difficult to combine and compare the results of the other studies (Fernandes et al.,
2020). The AI technologies used in a particular setting, for instance, urban areas with a good data
connection, may differ from those used in rural or under-resourced areas with inadequate
infrastructure, which may cause problems with the generalization of the results. Besides, the
studies covered in this review are performed under various conditions and with different AI
models, which may be challenging due to the differences in the underlying algorithms, training
data, and implementation strategies. The diversity of this field is a significant obstacle to the
study of the effectiveness and trustworthiness of AI in all EMS prehospital.
Ethical issues also limit the understanding and use of AI in different cultures and moral
systems. Although AI can significantly improve decision-making and operation efficiency, its
use in emergency medical services can lead to issues of privacy, data security, and the chance of
bias in algorithmic decision-making. Ethical issues are of great importance, especially in the case
of a diverse population where data is likely to be less representative. Thus, it can lead to biased
algorithms worsening healthcare delivery disparity. Moreover, the review concentrates on
literature mainly written in English. Therefore, it might need to include some vital information
on the studies carried out in other languages that provide different views on the ethical, practical,
and technical issues of AI in EMS.
Besides, the methodological problems of the studies reviewed are the limitations. Much
of this field’s research is based on observational designs, small sample sizes, or is restricted to a
particular geographical or operational area, which fails to ensure a reliable basis for the widescale generalizations. The absence of randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies in the
prehospital EMS AI literature can result in difficulties in identifying the causal relationships
between AI implementation and patient outcomes. Besides, the quality of AI research depends
on the quality and quantity of the available data, which can differ significantly from one study to
another. The difference in the results of the studies on the use of AI in emergency medical
services can lead to inconsistencies in the conclusions on the effectiveness and safety of AI
applications in the field of emergency medical services, which are the main factors in the
decision-making process for the healthcare providers and policymakers.
5.10 Recommendations
The review of AI in prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) systematically shows
several ways of improving service delivery through technology. Nevertheless, to fully exploit
these improvements, it is a must to tackle the problems discovered. The first suggestion is the
creation of standard protocols and frameworks for AI integration into EMS. Standardization
should cover the technical specifications, data formats, and interoperability between various
EMS systems and AI solutions (Grekousis & Liu, 2019). This would make the communication
and data exchange between different systems and devices seamless. Hence, this would be very
important for real-time data analysis and decision-making. The standardization should also
include the rules for training EMS personnel on AI tools to ensure the exact usage of these tools
in different jurisdictions. This way, the AI applications are technically compatible across various
systems and uniformly understood and used by the EMS personnel; thus, prehospital care
becomes more effective and efficient.
To overcome the problems of bias and underrepresentation in AI algorithms, it is
necessary to design and apply inclusive data collection methods. These strategies should be
designed to obtain information representing demographics, medical conditions, and regional
characteristics. The data used to train AI systems should be representative of the general
population to eliminate the biases that may come from unrepresentative training datasets.
Besides, the AI systems should be continually monitored and updated to include the new data
and the changing healthcare standards, which will help keep the AI applications in EMS relevant
and accurate (Fernandes et al., 2020). Through the interaction with ethicists and the different
community members during the AI development phase, one can get valuable ideas to make AI
solutions that are both ethically and culturally acceptable. This all-around approach improves the
fairness and equity of AI applications and increases public trust in their application in health
settings, which is of critical importance.
Considering the quick progress in AI technologies, research and development must
constantly be updated with the latest discoveries and their effects on prehospital EMS.
Consequently, cooperation among colleges, technology developers, and EMS providers for
innovation and practical research is created (Clark & Severn, 2023). Thus, such partnerships can
help the world’s AI research to find solutions for the EMS challenges that are real world.
Besides, the funding of the research on AI in prehospital care can be a guarantee of the new
technologies and their possible effects on patient outcomes and system efficiencies. Besides,
with the regular updating of AI systems used in EMS with the latest technological breakthroughs
and research findings, EMS practitioners can use the latest tools to improve their decisionmaking and patient care.
The prehospital environments’ nature and diversity require the EMS personnel to have
well-developed training and support systems to use AI tools properly. It is recommended that
comprehensive training programs be developed to help the EMS staff get the skills and
knowledge to work with AI technologies. The training should also concentrate on
comprehending the functionality of AI systems, interpreting AI-generated insights, and
incorporating these insights into the clinical decision-making processes. Besides, rescue
personnel should be helped and given a refresher course to ensure they remain competent in
using artificial intelligence tools as these technologies are being invented. Such educational
initiatives should be compulsory for all EMS systems to acquire a uniform level of competency
and, at the same time, to create the mutual aid and interoperability possible during multijurisdictional emergency responses.
The ethical problems connected with AI in EMS can be solved by establishing moral
rules and framework governance. When using AI technologies, these frameworks must
incorporate data privacy, consent, transparency, and accountability. Public representatives,
ethicists, and legal experts can be involved in making these guidelines all-inclusive and publicly
accepted (Niyonsaba et al., 2023). Besides, the constant ethical audits of AI systems will be very
useful in detecting and solving ethical problems before they become a huge problem. These
precautions guarantee the safety of patient rights and privacy; thus, the public’s confidence in
AI’s application of emergency medical services is boosted.
Creating a culture of innovation and adaptability within the EMS organizations is vital to
ensure successful AI integration. This can be achieved by endorsing the idea of being open to
technological innovations and establishing the structures for exchanging knowledge and
experience about AI in EMS. The leaders in EMS should be the ones to lead and push for the use
of AI technologies by pointing out the advantages of AI technologies in service delivery and
patient outcomes. Besides, innovation centres inside EMS organizations can be created to
experiment and improve the new AI tools in a restricted environment before they are
generalized. Therefore, the EMS officers are not only ready to use the AI but are also good at the
use of the AI to improve prehospital care.
Aqel, S., Syaj, S., Al-Bzour, A., Abuzanouneh, F., Al-Bzour, N., & Ahmad, J. (2023). Artificial
intelligence and machine learning applications in sudden cardiac arrest prediction and
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Cimino, J., & Braun, C. (2023). Clinical Research in Prehospital Care: Current and Future
Challenges. Clinics and Practice, 13(5), 1266-1285.
Clark, M., & Severn, M. (2023). Artificial Intelligence in Prehospital Emergency Health
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Ellahham, S., Ellahham, N., & Simsekler, M. C. E. (2020). Application of artificial intelligence in
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decision support systems for triage in the emergency department using intelligent systems:
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Grekousis, G., & Liu, Y. (2019). Where will the next emergency event occur? Predicting
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Kirubarajan, A., Taher, A., Khan, S., & Masood, S. (2020). Artificial intelligence in emergency
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